CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY The concept of school dropout is a worldwide one that affects the education industry all around the world. In its most basic form, school dropout refers to the premature exit from school. Students who drop out of school too soon do not get a certificate or equivalent qualification whcih Bridgeland, Dilulio, and Morison (2006), as well as Oghuvbu (2008), have since backed up this claim. According to Fafunwa (1983), dropout is one of the most prominent problems that have plagued our educational system since our independence from the colonial government in 1960. Even before our independence, the dropout problem had taken hold of our educational system. This is supported by Nuffied Foundations' observation in 1953 that on the West Coast of Africa, a significant number of students drop out of school each year. This suggests that our educational system is in jeopardy and, as a result, requires immediate attention in refocusing and restructuring in order to achieve national goals. De Cos (2005) stated in his commentary on the significance of high school graduation that, as the economy shifts from a focus on manufacturing to a reliance on technology, services, and a "knowledge economy," the necessity for education beyond high school has expanded. Globally, the reasons why students drop out of school may be divided into four categories. These are as follows: school-related, job-related, family-related, and community-related. Frendenberg and Ruglls (2007) discovered twenty-four components in the family cluster, three in the community cluster, and twelve in the school cluster. Low family socioeconomic status, racial or ethnic groups, male, special education status, low family support for education, low parental education, residential mobility, low social conformity, low acceptance of adult authority, high level of social isolation, disruptive behavior conduct, being held back in school, poor academic achievement, academic problems in early grades, not liking school, feelings of "not fitting in" are among the factors identified under family cluster. The following indicators were discovered in the community cluster: living in a low-income neighborhood, having peers with poor educational goals, and having friends or siblings who are dropouts. The following factors were identified under the school-related cluster: low socioeconomic status of the school population, high level of racial or ethnic segregation of students, high proportion of students of color in high school, high proportion of students enrolled in special education, central city location, large school district, school safety and disciplinary policies, high-stakes testing, high student-to-teacher ratio, academic tracking, discrepancy between the racial or ethnic While the job-related cluster includes students who were unable to work and attend school at the same time, those who needed to work to live, and those who found jobs. Therefore in this period of global economic collapse and global economic competition, Nigeria, as a visionary nation, must make concentrated efforts to increase the educational attainment of all its youngsters, who will be tomorrow's leaders. 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Fundamentally, every educational system strives for students to finish the whole primary cycle before moving on to secondary school or the workforce. According to Nduku, (2003) and Ngotho (2003). When it becomes clear that a large percentage of students drop out before finishing the cycle, this becomes a serious issue because: first, children who drop out are pushed out of the education system and prematurely flow into the free world without the essential skills and qualifications. They quickly lose the little literacy they had learned when they join their jobless compatriots. Second, each child that drops out of school causes the government and parents to lose money. Third, a youngster with limited education has a tough time moving up the social ladder. More so, school dropouts engage in antisocial activities such as crime, prostitution, and drug and substance misuse, and their frustrations may lead to suicide in certain cases. School dropouts, as a result, cause issues for individuals and society as a whole. In Nigeria, dropping out is a serious problem because it denies individual students their fundamental human right to education. There is general consensus that the school dropout problem has reached epidemic proportions intentionally and has become a global problem confronting the education sector round the world (Wotherspoon, 2004). Studies by Okeke (2011) found financial difficulties, children not interested in studies, parents not interested in studies, lack of education facilities in the nearby villages and lack of quality education as reasons cited for dropping out. In almost all developing countries school dropout or low completion rates have been a subject of interest to researchers and policy makers for a long time. According to the Poverty Status Report of 2005, the phenomenon of high dropout rates continues to pose a big challenge to the successful implementation of national policy on education. hence high drop-out rate has become a public outcry. As a result of the above problems, the researcher was motivated to investigate those causes of drop-out and also proffer solutions to tackle these problems. 1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The main objectives of this study is to find out a review on the determinants of dropout among primary school pupils. Specifically the study intends: i. To investigate the school-related determinant factors on pupils’ dropout in primary schools ii. To examine the family-cluster factors that influence pupils’ dropout. iii. To determine the community related factors that influences pupils’ dropout iv. To ascertain the implication of primary school pupil dropout .