1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Educational technology has gone a long way since its inception. It may be traced back to the time when man began his quest to influence the natural world's course. Ogunranti (1984) highlighted three major stages in the evolution of what is now known as educational technology:
Stone age generation: teaching was done using chalk boards and books, and this never forced people to study on their own. Book and chalk board generation: teaching was done using chalk boards and books, and this never forced people to study on their own. These days, advancements in teaching technology have resulted in the mass communication generation. The use of instructional materials in biology classes has become almost as frequent as the use of text books and other laboratory materials. It has a good impact on student accomplishment; students who are given the opportunity to utilize manipulatives indicate that they are more engaged in biology, which leads to increased student ability in the long run (Bridge, 2001). Children were educated in a highly conventional and stereotyped manner around the turn of the century. Education was originally viewed solely as a means of transmitting factual information (Gavi, 2003). The instructor took on an authoritative demeanor, and the children's knowledge of facts was periodically assessed, but no such exam was conducted. Were unconcerned about intellectual comprehension or successful execution. The major focus was on memory tests. Because there was a lengthy interval between the child's answer and the instructor's reinforcement, the teacher frequently utilized the lecture approach, which was ineffective for meaningful learning, and he did not use other common resources to augment his spoken instruction (Green, 2004). According to Good (2003), a contemporary teacher views each kid as a plant that has to develop according to its capacities and aptitudes in order to learn. The modern teacher views education as a process of interaction between the child and his environment, in which the child learns by doing and how to learn in groups as well as individually as the population and explosion of knowledge affects the pattern of human life and has a full impact on education, which is made possible by the use of teaching materials that can be conserved as educational technology advances. According to Hoilman (2007), students who learn science through discovery, particularly biology, would find the actual structure of the field for themselves, in total agreement with current scientific education philosophy, instruction, and teaching resource materials for secondary school. For secondary school students, biology consists of a textbook, student handbook, and teacher guide. There is no denying that information is a universal commodity, but how it is presented is a matter of personal choice (Carlos, 2005). Biology is an essential subject to teach since it improves one's quality of life. Because biology encompasses all areas of life, it goes without saying that biology should be thought about in order to achieve in life. The problem of education's lack of quality and consistency might be solved through judicious use of instructional materials. Teaching technology is a method of planning, implementing, and assessing the teaching-learning process (Long, 2003). Instructional technology improves the effectiveness, comprehension, and meaning of instruction. To make learning easier, a variety of materials are employed. In the classroom, the traditional teacher-centered approach has been replaced by a learning-centered one. It is referred to as student-centered being the resource, and Bilbao (2006) stated that learning just by hearing is the least effective method of learning. When compared to eight percent, piling teaches eleven percent. By looking, you can get 3%. Learning by hearing has the lowest retention rate, as we remember just ten percent of what we learn hearing after three days, compared to fifty percent of what we learn through both hearing and seeing, and ninety percent of what we learn by using the four senses, namely hearing and acting. The teaching of resources and biology in our public secondary schools cannot be overemphasized; the goal is to achieve the best possible pedagogical communication outcome with the students. To do so, the teacher must not only work tirelessly, but also make use of resources or teaching materials in order to facilitate better communication and understanding of the subject matter. Teaching materials will help to simplify and create a pleasant learning environment by reducing the job of the instructor in the classroom (Ric, 2006). Furthermore, the utilization of instructional materials allows teachers and students to strengthen their capacity to imagine and relate to what they see in the actual world. Teachers in both private and public secondary schools should not rely solely on verbal instruction, but should be encouraged to use appropriate teaching resources. They should understand that teaching materials add color to their classroom instruction, tie verbal concepts together, and give students a sense of belonging and complete understanding of the concept (Bilbao, 2006).