1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Today's children will be tomorrow's leaders, and children are often characterized as a nation's pride and riches. For these reasons, each nation's future is heavily reliant on its youth, who provide the human and potential resources required for the society's survival (Tunor, 2011). Any nation's younger population must not only be protected, but properly disciplined, in order to achieve long-term development. Over the past decade, educators in Nigeria have been more concerned about student indiscipline and disdain for school officials. This indiscipline has long been a source of worry for educators, policymakers, the general public, and society. School indiscipline diminishes teaching hours because more time is spent regulating students' misbehavior rather than teaching, according to research Tunor (2011). School Inability and unwillingness to do assigned class work or homework, refusal to take given orders, teasing of other learners, disrespecting educators, swearing at educators or other learners, carrying dangerous weapons to school, threatening other learners with dangerous weapons, assaulting other learners, truancy bullying, alcohol and substance abuse, truancy bullying, alcohol and substance abuse, truancy bullying, alcohol and substance abuse, truancy bullying, alcohol and substance abuse, truancy bullying, alcohol and substance abuse, truancy bullying, alcohol (Tunor, 2011; Idu and Ojedapo, 2011).
Discipline is undoubtedly one of the most challenging and unpleasant aspects of teaching since the teacher is responsible for educating, socializing, empowering, and certifying pupils, all of which is only feasible with the support of a positive teaching environment (Fafunwa, 2009; Farrant, 2004). In terms of its origins and effects, as well as its meanings and roles in the social, psychological, and educational areas, indiscipline is a complicated issue. The issue of indiscipline pervades every aspect of man's existence and has driven him to his knees. According to the Bible (Christians' sacred book), the first man and woman, Adam and Eve, were expelled from the Garden of Eden because of their disobedience. The sin of disobedience is indiscipline to set down norms and regulations by the established authority (God), in which he directed people not to do something, which they subsequently did and had to face the consequences. According to Gaustard (2005), school indiscipline has two basic goals. The first is to guarantee that staff and children are safe, and the second is to provide a learning atmosphere. The ideals of education are undermined by acts of indiscipline caused by student misbehavior including aggressive and criminal activity. If education providers and customers allow acts of indiscipline to incubate under present favorable circumstances, they may produce a monster that will be difficult to eradicate (Tunor, 2011) and Idu and (Ojedapo, 2011). On the economic front of the country, little examples of the envisioned challenges are being experienced. Many people feel that educational indiscipline is to blame for the present economic troubles caused by corruption, robbery, assassination, abduction, smuggling, and pipeline vandalism. Not just by those who establish or interpret the law, but also by those who swore an oath to protect the laws of the state, court injunctions and decrees are routinely disobeyed. These acts of indiscipline in our country's existence are likely to have started as a mustard seed of disobedience in the classroom. School indiscipline is a major problem that obstructs the proper development of youngsters in society, particularly those in secondary schools. When it comes to achieving educational objectives, indiscipline has gotten a lot of attention. Indiscipline, defined as a violation of school rules and regulations capable of obstructing the smooth and orderly functioning of the school system, should be avoided as a result of proper student orientation and the imposition of positive sanctions in the case of obvious violations of order, according to Edem (1982). Students' capacity to respect authority, follow, and obey school rules and regulations, which affects their academic achievement, is referred to as indiscipline. Missing or skipping classes on a regular basis will almost certainly result in poor academic achievement. The same may be said for truancy, abstinence, and tardiness, to name a few. The goal of this research is to look at the issues of indiscipline and how they affect academic performance in Lagos State's Senior Secondary Schools. Indiscipline is an issue that affects all schools, regardless of gender or school type, yet the degree and size of the problem varies from one school to the next. Violence occurs more often outdoors than on school grounds, despite the fact that it is a routine occurrence. Because there are no administrative or legal norms to resort to in the event that such difficulties or situations emerge, the actions adopted to deal with indiscipline are barely enough. Both inside and between schools of the same kind, actions are often haphazard and unplanned. Because of a lack of support from relevant authorities, political interference, and an incapacitated school administration, most teachers feel powerless to deal with cases of indiscipline.
In this research, we'll look at the terms discipline and indiscipline, as well as their impact on academic success. Discipline, in a broad sense, may be defined as instruction that helps a person to achieve ordered behaviour, self-control, and self-direction (Egwunyenga, 2000). As a result, discipline identifies a person's or a group's limits. Restraint is a self-imposed technique of self-control. In terms of our schools, Adeshina (1980) defined it as a condition in which pupils are taught to respect school officials, follow school rules and regulations, and maintain a set of behavioral standards. Respect for oneself and others, in other terms. According to Boakye (2006), discipline is the following of rules and commands as well as the display of an outward sign of respect in accordance with existing agreements. Discipline in the classroom is an important aspect of school administration. This is because discipline is a way of life based on society's established norms, to which all members must adhere and whose breach is frowned upon. Indiscipline is seen as a learning and training process that promotes growth and development. The goal of discipline is to assist the person in being well adjusted, joyful, and valuable in both school and society (Imaguezor, 1997). According to Nolte (1980) and Barrell (1978), the idea of school discipline is founded on the notion of loco parentis, which gives school authorities entire responsibility for children's development, as well as the power to discipline and control. To put it another way, instructors have the authority to discipline pupils who break school regulations or laws. A structured teaching offered to a pupil is referred to as this discipline. Discipline refers to the act of instructing someone to obey a set of rules. Discipline, according to Adesina (1990), is the willingness or capacity to accept authority and follow the society's or any other organization's customary or established rules. Self-control, constraint, and respect for oneself and others are all characteristics of discipline. In a nutshell, school discipline refers to the management of pupils and the enforcement of school rules and regulations. These regulations may include the required standards of dress (school uniform), punctuality, social conduct among classmates, and overall school ethics, among other things. In order to attain academic greatness, discipline requires sacrifice, persistence, and tolerance in our institutions. Indiscipline, on the other hand, is misconduct in any or all of the following areas: respect for school authority, compliance with rules, laws, and regulations, and upholding established behavioral standards. According to Adesina (1990), discipline is derived from the Latin term Discipulus, which means "to learn." As a result, it necessitates the subordination of one's emotions and abilities to a regulation, which avoids anarchy and provides efficiency, without which ineffectiveness and waste would result. On the other side, indiscipline is a violation of social order, decent moral behavior, and self-accepted and self-maintained social standards of life. In addition, indiscipline is an issue that affects the efficacy of work in today's public and private secondary schools. Nepotism, hooliganism, absenteeism, truancy, unintentional property damage, cheating, and test malpractice have all resulted as a result of this. The lack of discipline is referred to as indiscipline. As a result, wherever indiscipline rules, discipline is missing, putting the society's stability and continuous existence in jeopardy, since when discipline is not imparted, life and property become insecure, and the society's prolonged existence becomes problematic. According to Edem (1982), indiscipline, as a violation of school rules and regulations, can obstruct the smooth and orderly functioning of the educational system and should be avoided as a result of proper student orientation and the imposition of positive sanctions in cases of obvious violations of the order. According to Dittiniya (1996), indiscipline may be defined as any conduct that violates society ideals and standards. Indiscipline may take on a variety of shapes and forms, depending on how it is carried out in its many forms. Indiscipline is a separate and deserved component of growth, training, and a rule-abiding way of life. As a result, a lack of discipline is linked to any kind of misconduct. In this context, indiscipline refers to any behavior that is contrary to the established norms and regulations controlling a learning environment. It is critical to emphasize that indiscipline in secondary schools is one of the most serious issues confronting our society today. According to (Timothy, 2008: 110), indiscipline is the polar opposite of discipline, i.e. a lack of discipline. He also cited Dittinuiya (1995), who defined it as any action that violates society values and standards. Indiscipline, on the other hand, is as ancient as creation itself. Because of their disobedience and desire to be like their creator, the first man and female (Adam and Eve) were expelled from the Garden of Eden. They sampled the forbidden fruit and suffered the consequences. Furthermore, indiscipline in our institution has drew the notice of the media and the general public for some time. Some individuals believe that schools, which are supposed to help develop people up for the welfare of society, are becoming breeding grounds for indiscipline.