1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Since the establishment of western education in Nigeria. It has had to deal with a slew of issues (Ijaiya 1999). During the colonial or post-independence periods, the majority of Nigerian administrations have struggled with these issues. It led to the formation of different committees (such as the Asuby commission of 1960, the 1969 curriculum conference, and the Education Reform Committee of 2006) to evaluate Nigeria's educational problems and give suggestions. Overpopulation and under-resourced courses are two issues that the Nigerian educational system is grappling with. The issues of teacher shortages in classrooms are closely intertwined, and when they combine with high child enrollment, the result is overcrowding (Ijaiya, 1999). This has become a reality, and educators must see it as a problem that must be met front on. In Nigeria, the societal demand for formal education led in a spike in school enrollment, accompanied by a significant rise in class size, resulting in a high teacher-to-student ratio. The size of the class has a significant impact on the achievement of educational goals and objectives. The maximum number of pupils in a single classroom should not exceed 40 per instructor.
Because instructors were prone to greater stress in dealing with the pupils, teaching and learning, as well as classroom management, were inefficient (Cohen and Manion, 1983).
Because many schools have grown overcrowded, the introduction of UBE across the nation shows the fact that instructors are being burdened with increased duty. When it comes to continuous assessment marking and the capacity to offer specialized attention to pupils who need additional support, overcrowded classrooms are regarded inconvenient for both instructors and students. When teaching large classes, there is a risk of students copying and cheating; students' negative attitudes toward learning new things; discipline issues; students using their mother tongue when asked to work in pairs or groups; noise making; a lack of opportunities for students to develop their communicative skills; boredom in teaching and testing; and teacher dominance. All of this has an impact on instructors' work performance.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Overcrowding in the classroom is a common refrain among teachers when asked about the challenges they face in their profession, with responses such as "The boys are scattered because they are many and cannot participate all, loses the "thread of the class, and so on the disorder and behavioral problems," in addition to the problem of space, and some students have visual problems because the banks have been removed from the board, among other things.
Schools in Nigeria are overcrowded, and the national education strategy calls for a maximum teacher-to-pupil ratio of 1:40 in secondary schools. This research aims to identify the key issues caused by overcrowded schools and classrooms in Nigeria, with the goal of giving recommendations to assist relieve the difficulties. Because the classroom is the beating heart of every educational system, no curriculum design is complete without implementation and assessment, both of which take place primarily in the classroom (Ijaiya,1999).
Cohen and Manion (1983) correctly noticed that paying close attention to seating arrangement adds as effectively as any other part of classroom management and control to overall performance with a class. The teacher's efficacy and efficiency may be influenced by the seating arrangement. In a secondary school, chairs should ideally be placed in rows with enough space between them to enable the instructor to teach efficiently and for individual and group work. To achieve this, the teacher-to-student ratio should not exceed 1:40. However, in many of these groups, the ratio is between 1:50 and 1:100 in certain circumstances. Hence the need to look into overpopulation in schools and its effect on teachers’ job performance.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This general objective of the study is overpopulation in schools and its effect on teachers’ job performance. The specific objective are as follows:
i. To find out the causes of overpopulation in schools.
ii. To examine the effect of overpopulation on the effectiveness of teachers.
iii. To verify the extent to which young people seek to enter the school.
iv. To identify the possible solution to the problem of overpopulation.