1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Over the course of many decades, educators have examined and discussed the topic of class size. Variables including socioeconomic level, race, and educational techniques all have an impact on the results of various research (Summers & Wolfe, 1976; Wend ling & Cohen, 1981; Shapson, Wright, Eason & Fitzgerald, 1978; Mosteller, 1995). Additional research has looked at the relationship between overpopulation and academic attainment (Burnett, 1995) or density and behavior (Burnett, 1995,Loo & Smetana, 1978). There has been a lot of study on crowding, according to Weinstein (1979), covering the factors of perceived overcrowding, the consequences of overcrowding on task performance, and emotional and social responses to crowding. However, since the architectural areas of schools have not been studied, the density of individual schools and its link to academic achievement has not been a consideration in research. When it comes to questions concerning class six, now is a good moment. A significant longitudinal study resolves the issue "Do smaller classes result in higher academic accomplishment in primary schools?" after years of discussion, conjecture, and research that yielded only partial and less-than-definitive answers (Weinstein, 1979).
The conclusiveness of the results, as well as the consequences for kids at risk and education policy in general, are explored. The approaches that have been taken to assess the costs and benefits of reducing school population and process additional dimensions that need to be considered, as well as the explores the implications of school population for classroom management and instructional strategies, with a special focus on the need to increase the academic engagement of at-risk students (Weinstein, 1979). The agenda is primarily concerned with the impact of small versus big classrooms in elementary education. In tiny courses in the higher grades, the status of research will be fragmented and even inconsistent, with nothing to suggest that it is founded on meaningful study results. There are many compelling reasons to begin intervention programs in primary schools. Because of the overwhelming common sense appeal of small classes to relieve challenges unique to our schools, the problem remains (Weinstein, 1979). Small courses are an important part of federally subsidized programs, including special education classes for low-income students. Small classrooms or groups of students working with a single instructor or tutor are also a staple of programs aimed at at-risk students. As can be observed in Nigeria today, the level of education has deteriorated as compared to earlier times, when a standard size bearer was more capable than a university graduate. This indicates that the primary school administrator and population size should be adequately expressed, since the primary school level is the backbone of any country's educational success.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
According to Wohlwill and van Vliet (1985) who outlined the repercussions of overpopulation as "Excess levels of stimulation; tension and arousal; a drain on available resources; excessive interference; decreases in desired privacy levels; and loss of control seem to be the results of overpopulation settings involving either too many children or too little space." A large population or a lack of space also need more repairs and upkeep than usual (National Center for Educational Statistics, 2000). The issue is that pupils need enough space since overcrowding leads to behavioral issues and raises maintenance costs. The study therefore, attempts to investigate school population and its effect on teaching and learning.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The general objective of the study is school population and its effect on teaching and learning. The specific objective is as follows:
i. To examine the factors responsible for the overpopulation of schools.
ii. To find out the effect of overpopulation on teaching and learning in the classroom.
iii. To evaluate the relationship between overpopulation and students academic performance.
iv. To find out probable solution to the issue of overpopulation in schools.