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1.1     Background to the Study

The transportation system is a system for transferring people or goods from one location to another. Inputs, processes, outputs, and feedback are all present in transportation systems. Bus drivers and gasoline, for example, are inputs to a municipal bus system. Driving the bus and loading passengers are examples of procedures. Arrival at planned stops is the outcome. Comments from pleased customers are examples of feedback. The transportation networks are linked. Each system is reliant on the others. Transportation systems are a component of our world's broader technological, social, and environmental systems (Murray Ray and Davis Bryan, 2001).

Ensure "social justice" should be one of the goals of every country's social policy. To prevent exclusion, persons must be able to execute a variety of living functions and engage in a variety of live activities. The importance of transportation in promoting social fairness cannot be overstated (Minogue Anoly1998 and Foley Brock 2004). Transportation is regarded as one of the most important aspects of human existence, affecting both access to and effective execution of daily tasks. Mobility and accessibility are two important aspects of transportation. These are the basic necessities of today's worldwide society (Hoyle and Knowles, 1998). Mobility and accessibility may be hampered, restricted, or even impossible in certain conditions, putting the usage of transportation services, and hence the fulfillment of everyday demands, in jeopardy. Individuals or whole social groupings that find themselves in this scenario will be subjected to the transport disadvantage process (Gaparovi and Jakovi, 2014). Automobiles are the primary mode of transportation in today's culture. Automobiles, as a result, play a significant role in the characterization of people's transportation disadvantage. The lack of or inability to drive a vehicle (due to legal or other constraints) is often cited as the primary cause of transportation inequity (Murray and Davis, 2001; Clifton and Lucas, 2004). In addition, the person's financial situation and physical traits are taken into account (such as gender or disability). As a result, some writers have established a category of people who they believe are at a disadvantage when it comes to transportation. Children and adolescents are one of these categories (Murray and Davis, 2001; Stanley and Stanley, 2004; Dodson, et al., 2004; Hurni, 2006; Hurni, 2007). Although some writers classify children and adolescents as a transportation-disadvantaged social category, it should be highlighted that not all age groups of youngsters are equally affected by transportation disadvantage. High school students between the ages of 15 and 18 are considered the most vulnerable. Small children and elementary school students need less mobility than high school students.

In many regions of the globe, using school buses to transport children has become common. In America and Latin America, for example, a higher percentage of pupils use school buses instead of public transportation. According to statistics, school buses transport around 24 million children and traverse more than 4 billion miles in a single year in the United States. Students' buses are generally painted in various colors to make them stand out. They are painted yellow in America. School buses in Argentina are painted orange, and in Canada, all school buses must have the same color (ODay, 1993). Several Asian nations have also examined employing school buses instead of public transportation to improve student transportation. In Hong Kong, the majority of children ride school buses that are run by individual schools. However, there are dedicated vehicles for students known as public students buses. These buses are not administered by schools, but rather by the government, and are exclusively available to students. According to Howe and Bryceson (2000), in many African nations, student transportation is a problem. In most African nations, public transportation was the most popular mode of student transportation. However, this began to change in the 1980s, when certain schools, particularly public schools, began to run school buses for kids. The buses run because parents contribute to the expense of operating and maintaining them. Private schools in Uganda and Lesotho, for example, are increasingly using school buses to transport their kids. In most African nations, there are no school buses. Students go via bus and various modes of transportation. These youngsters face several problems, like being late to school and being treated harshly by bus operators. Students who ride school buses inside the same country seem unconcerned about these issues (ibd). School buses are preferred over regular public transportation because school buses and other dedicated buses for kids are typically seen to be safer. Deaths on the road are exceedingly uncommon, given the number of children on the buses and the distance they travel. In the United States, there are 0.2 fatalities per 100 million miles driven by school buses. The fatality rate in other modes of transportation is eight times greater. Statistics is a useful tool for comparing the hazards involved. Between 1994 and 2004, a total of 71 people on school buses perished in collisions during an 11-year span. However, traffic accidents killed 31,693 persons in vehicles and light trucks in America in just one year, in 2004 (Forken brock, 2004).

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