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PROJECT TOPIC: AN EXAMINATION ON THE EFFECT OF SCHOOL DISTANCE ON SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENTS

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the Study

In an ideal world, there should be certain established norms and criteria that dictate the placement of each school, official or informal. This is to ensure that schools are situated in locations and settings that promote good teaching and learning. The proximity of the school to the house is usually the first consideration for parents and other adults when choosing a school for their children and wards, particularly at the elementary level in Nigeria. This may be one of the main reasons why many Nigerian businesses and organizations, as well as some colleges, have their own elementary and secondary schools inside their housing complexes. Schools run by the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) in Warri, the Delta Steel Company in Ovwian-Aladja, and the University Demonstration Schools are just a few examples. The proximity of schools to children's homes has become an important concern in school planning. Schools should not be located near noisy environments such as markets, hospitals, highways, railway stations, refineries, or industries, nor should they be located near hazardous environments such as rivers, steep hilltops, or high tension electric lines, nor should they be located near dreaded or bizarre environments such as mortuaries, burial grounds, or ritual shrines. The population threshold and the distance that students would have to go to school each day are the most essential factors to consider while choosing a school site. This has been a source of worry for educational planners, who utilize population density as an approximate indicator of school location and growth, as well as the quality of services delivered. As a result, in educational planning, the distance traveled to school should be a criterion for approval and placement of schools. Despite this, a stunning majority of Nigerian kids and students are spotted walking significant distances to and from school every day, particularly in rural regions, which intrigues the investigator (Arubayi, 2005; Duze, 2005). Another cause of concern is that the distance traveled to school is linked to problems such as absenteeism, delinquency, truancy, tardiness, and indiscipline.

School principals believe a one-kilometer walk to school to be too far for pupils aged six to seventeen. If pupils walk more than one kilometer to school, the results may not be in the best interests of both the child and the school, since defined goals and objectives may not be fully realized. Many Nigerian governments mandated that schools be placed no more than one kilometer from the dwellings of the communities to be served while implementing the obligatory free education program. This was one of the primary reasons why schools were established in almost every hamlet throughout the nation. However, many Nigerian youngsters continue to still travel significant distances to and from school today. Arubayi (2005) compared the distance traveled to school by Edo and Delta State pupils/students, as well as the influence on attendance. He came to the conclusion that a large number of elementary and secondary schools in both Edo and Delta States were located far away from the pupils'/students' homes, which had an impact on school attendance. In several Nigerian states, including Anambra, Enugu, and Ebonyi, there is a scarcity of empirical research on the distance traveled to school by kids and students and its impact on school attendance. Long distances traveled to school are also one of the key causes for high dropout rates in Nigeria's primary and secondary schools, according to study, and the South Eastern States of Nigeria have been noted as having a high number of school dropouts. (Onakpoma, 2008; Arubayi, 2005; Duze, 2005; Madumere, 1991; Arubayi, 2005). Early school dropout is positively associated to the distance between schools and students' households, according to empirical studies in Third World nations (Vasquez, 1965, Haq, 1961). Propensity to enroll and absence are linked to distance from school. Because practically all kids in primary school commute from home to school and return every day, the distance between home and school should always be taken into account when deciding where to locate a primary school. Students will have more time to devote to school academics, work at home, or leisure activities if the average distance to school can be reduced at both the primary and secondary school levels.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

The daily distance traveled to school by both primary and secondary school students has a significant negative impact on attendance. Due to the distance from school, younger children in the important early years of schooling are frequently the most prone to dropping out. For a tiny kid, walking many kilometers every day is more difficult than for a teenager (Duze, 2005). Rural schools are often further away from children's homes than urban schools, and they may face additional supply restrictions, such as inadequate facilities and low teacher quality. Female students who travel great distances to school face extra safety worries from their parents (Duze, 2005). If children are reprimanded or admonished for coming late after a long walk to school, they may be deterred from going. These and other factors combine to create severe impediments to education for millions of children throughout the globe. Overcoming these obstacles requires a tenacious resolve on the part of children and their families.

1.3     Objectives of the Study

The general objectives of this study is to find out  the effect of school distance on secondary school students academic achievements, specifically the study intends to;

1.     To find out the level to which school location affects the academic achievement of secondary school students.

2.   To examine the effect of school distance on students academic achievements. 3.    To analyze the factors that determined location of secondary schools.


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