1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The education system is the tool that a society employs to educate all of its citizens with the skills they need to conduct productive public lives and fulfilling personal lives, based on their talents and interests. This system must allow talented individuals to fully develop their talents, as well as provide opportunities for the formation of a leadership group and the practical skills required for the establishment of a progressive and democratic society (Alute, 2005). Some educators may claim that this definition is insufficient. As a result, examination may be seen in a larger context. In this regard, an examination may simply be defined as a method of determining how much pupils have profited from their lecturers' lectures in a certain topic. The educational quality that we impart to our kids and the importance that we place on the development of attitudes that they bring into public life. So, the type of seed we sow in the classroom, how we nurture it, and the strength it imbibes at various stages of development will all determine the harvest that the nation will reap in schools, colleges, and universities (Alute,2005).
The traces of these institutions' learning will be permanent and readily obvious in all aspects of national life, whether it is a clerk in an office, a military school, a university professor, or a bureaucracy running the administration in a seat of power. This significant impact of education on national identity is comprehensible if we know the short- and long-term influence that education has over everyone who participate in its process. Due to the education of diverse peoples across the globe, whole empires have fallen or risen as a result of national formation or unformation (Alute,2005). When Ancient Greece and Rome were at the height of their political power, they were also centers of learning and a source of intellectual guidance and inspiration for the entire known world; however, when intellectual decadence struck, it shattered society's very fabric, and Greece and Rome vanished (Agbo ,2003).
Examination is the crucial point around which the whole educational system revolves, and the success or failure of the examination system is an accurate indicator of the success or failure of that specific educational system. It would be useful to assess the current examination system in order to see whether it truly accomplishes the goals it claims to accomplish.
Currently, a lot of work is being put into detecting fraud in condition exams. It goes without saying that examination misconduct is having a negative impact on the quality of our education. Simply describe examination, according to Alute (2005), as a method of determining how much information a student in an institution of learning has gained after being exposed to defined courses of the institution.
Malpractice, according to the Oxford English mini-dictionary, is defined as "wrongdoing unsuitable professional conduct." Examination malpractice, according to the World Bank Group, is a purposeful act of wrongdoing that is done in violation of official examination standards and is intended to provide a candidate an undue advantage or disadvantage.
Examination malpractice is any unlawful conduct undertaken by a student alone or in coordination with others, such as classmates, parents, professors, supervisors, invigilators, printers, or anybody or group of people, before, during, or after an examination to get undeserved scores or grades (Alute, 2005).
Exam misconduct is an example of academic dishonesty that has persisted for many years, is on the rise, and is harmful.
It is very annoying and depressing that the wave of examination malpractices continues to blow and spread like fire in the harmattan in Nigeria's higher institutions without any controversy; examination malpractice has now become a full-fledged cancer in Nigeria's tertiary institutions. Some academics provide explanations for why students engage in examination misconduct.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The teacher's role in achieving learning is to lead and steer learning so that students may attain their educational objectives. However, it is sad that most professors, in addition to carrying out their allotted teaching duties, also teach students how to cheat in exams. The teacher-related element, according to Agbo (2003), is one of the factors driving test misconduct. The most common outcome of excessive disobedience to duty is worry brought on by the failure to complete the syllabus. The researcher also observes that some professors are unskilled, and hence do not provide pupils with the proper test requirements. The manner professors carry out their teaching duties has also been linked to students' cheating behavior. Because some professors pay little attention in class, the scheme of work is never addressed, and as a result, students resort to cheating to keep up with others who have been thoroughly instructed. Hence the need to look into factors influencing examination malpractices among Nigeria students in tertiary institutions
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The general objective of the study is factors influencing examination malpractices among Nigeria students in tertiary institutions. The specific objective is as follows:
1. To find out the factors contributing to examination malpractice among student in tertiary institution.
2. To examine the effect of examination malpractice on student in the tertiary institution.
3. To evaluate the types of examination malpractice being perpetuated by students in Nigerian tertiary institutions.
4. To recommend solutions to the problem of examination malpractice among students in Nigerian tertiary institution.