Project Body:



1.1     Background to the Study

In the delivery of instructions, instructional materials act as a conduit between the instructor and the pupils. They may also be used to motivate students throughout the teaching-learning process. It is used to keep kids' attention and avoid boredom. Teaching resources are very crucial, particularly for rookie instructors. In every element of teaching, teachers depend on instructional resources. They need content to provide context for the topic they are teaching. When young instructors first join the job, they typically do not have a lot of experience. Lesson plans are often based on instructional resources. Teachers will also need these tools in order to test their pupils' understanding. Teachers often evaluate pupils by assigning assignments, developing projects, and delivering tests. For all of these activities, instructional materials are required.

Teachers' strategic component in organizing and delivering education, according to Oni (1992), is instructional resources. This is because they assist in the development of a notion that the instructor would not be able to develop without the use of instructional materials. This enables two pupils to study more comfortably, resulting in improved academic achievement. Balogun (1982), writing on the significance of instructional materials in teaching and learning, said that scientific education programs cannot be taught successfully without the availability of teaching equipment. This is because instructional materials aid in the development of problem-solving abilities and scientific attitudes in individuals who are learning. Ajayi and Ogunyemi (1990) elaborate on the same idea, stating that when instructional resources are offered to satisfy the relative demands of the teaching process, students will have access to the reference materials specified by the instructor, as well as the ability to study at their own speed. As a result, students will perform significantly better.

Fadeiye (2005) regarded instructional materials as real or intangible visual and audio-visual aids used by instructors to increase the quality of teaching and learning activities in Social Studies. According to Agina-Obu (2005), all types of instructional materials appeal to the sense organs during teaching and learning. Isola (2010) defined instructional materials as things or technology that help instructors convey their teachings to students in a logical and sequential manner. Teachers employ instructional resources, according to Oluwagbohunmi and Abdu-Raheem (2014), to enhance explanations and make subject matter learning clear to students throughout the teaching learning process. In a similar vein, Obanya (2004) said that various studies conducted in several Nigerian communities revealed that the outcomes of Senior School Certificate Examinations were absolutely poor in practically all courses provided by the pupils. He went on to say that just approximately 10% of the candidates'meaningfully passed' the test. According to Abdu-Raheem (2011), the lack of availability and quality of instructional resources are important factors of the educational system's ineffectiveness and kids' low performance un school. According to Ahmed (2003), in most Nigerian secondary schools, teaching and learning take place in an inhospitable atmosphere with limited access to necessary resources. According to Eniayewu (2005), it is critical to employ instructional aids for instructional delivery in order for students to get more information and improve academic standards. Furthermore, Ajayi and Ayodele (2001) emphasized the need of having instructional materials available in order to achieve successful educational delivery and monitoring in the school system. Ogbondah (2008) raised awareness of the inadequacy and underuse of instructional materials needed to correct for sense organ deficiencies and enhance the capability of dominant organs. He said that school instructors should do their utmost to provide locally manufactured materials in place of conventional ones in order to promote their teachings. Basic supplies such as textbooks, chalkboards, and necessary technology like as computers, projectors, televisions, and video are not easily accessible in many schools, according to Enaigbe (2009).

1.2     Statement of the Problem

The poor level of performance of secondary school pupils in both local and standardized tests is one of the primary issues confronting Nigeria's education industry. Over time, it has become a major source of worry for scholars, educators, and other education stakeholders. It was discovered that students often fail tests as a result of ineffective teaching techniques and a lack of necessary teaching tools (Afolabi, 2009). During the teaching process, instructional materials, also known as teaching aids, are shown to make education more relevant, clear, and engaging for students. There is a widespread perception that education is failing to achieve its goals, particularly given the high rate of pupils failing to pass the senior secondary certificate test. In all of Nigeria's secondary schools, the situation has become hazardous. Governments, educational institutions, and other concerned people are concerned about the educational system's inability to offer necessary and suitable teaching-learning aids in order to enhance student academic performance.

1.3     Objective of the Study

The general objective of the study is the significance of instructional materials on the academic achievement of secondary schools students, specifically the study intends to;

1.    To examine the availability of  instructional materials in secondary schools in Ogun state.

2.    To examine the benefit of  instructional materials and its impact on students academic achievement.

3.    To assess the challenges faced by teachers in attaining and using quality instructional materials.

4.     To investigate  the effect of  lack of instructional materials on the academic performance of secondary school students.

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