CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY Education is all about learning, acquiring knowledge, and improving one's skills thus the need for appropriate teaching. Effective teaching is critical in education because it helps students improve. Today's teachers provide pupils with a wide range of learning techniques. Teaching Methods, according to Peterson (2007), are means of controlling a group of pupils in order to attain predetermined educational objectives. Teaching methods may also be described as the use of a variety of teaching strategies and the expansion of a teacher's repertoire in order to optimize students' comprehension. This implies that lecturers, professors, and instructors combine a variety of teaching methods to help pupils learn while also simplifying the educational information they are receiving. According to Beinomugisha, Jagero, and Rwashema (2012), teaching approaches may be classified into two categories: participatory and non-participatory. In terms of concept, a participatory teaching technique is one in which students are fully engaged in educational activities while remaining true to their preferred learning modes. Secondary education is significant because it plays a crucial role in the economy and the education system. Participatory teaching approaches are vital in secondary education (URT, 2010). The majority of people in both the commercial and governmental sectors are expected to be secondary school graduates, according to past experience. The whole primary education system is reliant on secondary education graduates as instructors. Candidates for higher and tertiary education and training are secondary school graduates. Being crucial, or the lynch pin, is all about this. Secondary education's important externalities are increasingly being acknowledged in family planning, offspring education, political involvement, and health. A strong secondary education is a requirement for a decent quality of life, work skills, and economic productivity, necessitating the use of an appropriate learning technique, such as the participator method (URT, 2010). Peterson (2007) said that the participatory approach gives an avenue for successful learning in which students are not passive participants in the teaching and learning process. Various teaching styles are used in this sort of teaching technique. Group conversation, academic debate (debating), role-playing, problem-based learning, mind mapping, idea attainment, and inductive learning are examples of these. McKeachie (1999) discovered that cooperative learning may be used in the participatory teaching technique. In this approach, students are encouraged to collaborate in small groups to achieve common objectives. Teachers commonly employ small groups to develop conversation topics in the classroom. Individual accountability is promoted in a setting of group interdependence, in which students find information and teach it to their peers and, sometimes, the entire class. As a result, students in this method are part of established and long-term learning groups or teams. Cooperative learning may be used in the participative teaching technique, according to Hammer (2014). In this approach, students are encouraged to collaborate in small groups to achieve common objectives. Teachers commonly employ small groups to develop conversation topics in the classroom. Students are placed in established and long-term learning groups or teams with this technique. Individual accountability is promoted in a setting of group interdependence, in which students find information and teach it to their peers and, sometimes, the entire class. According to Woodson (2003), participatory teaching approaches may be organized in a pyramid format, with students working alone, then in pairs, and finally in larger groups. He suggested that this technique increases student involvement, particularly among students who are hesitant to speak out in class because they believe that others in the class share their opinions, even if they arrived at the same result in different ways. This method improves students' capacity to manage challenging learning tasks, making it worthy of further investigation. 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Every level of education has the same basic goal: to alter the pupil fundamentally. Teachers must use suitable teaching approaches that best fit certain aims and levels in order to accomplish the desired learning outcomes, in order to assist the process of information transmission. Many teachers employed teacher-centered procedures instead of student-centered techniques in the past to impart information to students. Surprisingly, the majority of students' poor academic performance may be traced back to teachers who employ ineffective teaching methods to transfer knowledge to students (Ellaine Obar 2019). This low achievement necessitates the government, through the education ministry, doing something about the teaching methods used to teach the students; most teachers use the same teaching methods to teach when they need to use different methods based on the topic and subjects, i.e. most teachers are not trained, so something needs to be done. According to the existing literature on teaching techniques, new and creative teaching strategies, such as guided inquiry and participatory approaches, should be used. In order to improve students' accomplishment, more research is needed into the best techniques of teaching certain themes in arts and sciences areas. Therefore, the problem of this research work is to analyze student perception on teachers’ utilization of participatory teaching methods in secondary schools. 1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The main objectives of this study is to analyze student perception on teachers’ utilization of participatory teaching methods in secondary schools. Specifically the study intends to: i. Investigate students’ perception on teachers use of participatory teaching methods. ii. Determine whether participatory method is more effective than traditional methods in achieving learning objective. iii. Analyze whether participatory teaching methods affects students’ overall academic achievement. iv. Assess challenges that teachers and students face when using participatory methods in classroom environment.