1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Nigeria has made significant progress in improving labor force educational attainment and increasing productivity over the years, but it still confronts diminishing real production and poor economic development (Fred, 2009). The focus of the article is on the influence of government spending on education standards on economic growth as a strategy of accomplishing the desired socioeconomic transformation in Nigeria or each state. Data from 1981 to 2012 is included in the study. The connection between GDP and recurrent education spending was investigated using Johan-series co-integration analysis and ordinary least square (OLS) econometric approaches. The findings show that, while there is a positive association between education spending and economic development, there is no long-run relationship across the research period. According to the report, this conundrum is due to labor market inconsistencies as well as leakages in Nigerian society, such as brain drain (Esther, 2012). Finally, the findings of the study suggest that the educational sector has not been as productive as projected. The low quality of graduates, rising occurrences of cultism in schools, and high dropout rates are all proof of this. The document also recommends that the education system be improved by making better use of public resources through effective governance, accountability, and openness (Uzi, 2008). Policymakers should also make an attempt to devise policies that would curb, safeguard, and defend the predicament of educational capital in other nations. Infrastructure is commonly recognized as a critical component of economic progress. Infrastructure helps to school economic growth by boosting teacher numbers and providing facilities, lowering unit costs of production, and improving quality of life (John, 2005). Government spending enhances education standards and can also help to long-term prosperity by boosting human capital through greater school access. According to the United Nations (2006), infrastructure development may play a vital role in boosting the standard of education and helping to eliminate low student quality under the correct circumstances. In light of this, it is critical to examine the changes that have occurred in Kaduna state's educational sector, as well as the makeup of public expenditure, to see if they are to blame for the state's growth (Francis, 2007). The purpose of this research is to look into the effect of government spending on education standards in Kaduna. Furthermore, the study will look at how low government spending has effected education in Kaduna State. Through multiplier effects on aggregate demand, high levels of government consumption are expected to boost employment, profitability, and investment (Uche, 2010). As a result, government spending, especially if it is recurring, contributes to economic growth. Education is one of the most significant areas where government resources are directed in both rich and developing economies (Grace, 2011). The notion is that education spending will have a significant impact on personal, social, economic, cultural, and other elements of people's life. However, the scenario will be different in terms of education spending than the theory predicts (Jude, 2012). This is one of the reasons for this study, which is aimed at exploring the effect of educational advancement.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE STUDY
The Nigerian education system has been plagued by a lack of financial resources for the education sector. The Federal Ministry of Education (2003) recognized that the period 1975-1999 was a difficult period for the Nigerian education system owing to instability and budgetary deficiencies, which mainly contributed to the 1980s economic crisis. Education spending by the federal government has been less than 1% of total spending, with recurring activities accounting for 70% of total spending (Faridah, 1997). At all levels of education, including elementary, secondary, and university, the number of students has increased dramatically. The actual expenditure level, on the other hand, falls short of the financial allotment.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The study's main purpose is to look at the effect of government education spending on standard education in Kaduna state, and the following particular objectives will help the researcher achieve this goal:
i. Determine the extent to which public education spending results in improvements in junior secondary schools.
ii. To prioritize public investment on educational infrastructure based on the contribution of their family.
iii. To investigate the influence of public education spending on the quality of education in Kaduna State's junior secondary schools.