1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Discipline is a precise control mechanism for our bodies. Our physics is developed to be ideal and skillful through discipline. Furthermore, discipline is a process of repeated evaluation and correction in order to develop a dexterous character that functions automatically in our physics (Black, 2012). Furthermore, discipline improves our talents, power, and bodily functions while also motivating our bodies to be beneficial to other beings and follow every rule stated. In other words, discipline can cause people to be conquered in addition to increasing physical health and power. According to Steinert (1983), Foucault stated that discipline cannot be imposed by another person, but must emerge from within one's own nature. Being a discipline personality does not imply that we must be "slaves" and do whatever others ask of us; rather, it aims to explore how individuals can have control over themselves.
If we go back in time to see how discipline first developed in this planet, it is thought to be a "art" of training human physics and mental to create subservient skill and relationship creating. In terms of developing the relationship mechanism, our body is pushed to be more subservient. And become a more useful individual (Capel, 1989). This definition is also known as political anatomy and power mechanism. People can be born as modern humans as a result of the preceding process. Students' discipline management is a procedure that is done on purpose and with care in order to establish a conducive learning environment and achieve learning objectives. This type of management should be structured in terms of planning, organizing, implementing, and regulating human resources in order to achieve organizational goals (Daroni, Solihat, & Salim, 2018). Furthermore, the purpose of student discipline management is to develop noble and positive character traits in students, which can be accomplished through the implementation of a student discipline program and the building of modern human resources (Daroni et al., 2018).
In the context of a school system, a disciplined student is one whose behaviors, actions, and inactions comply to the school's predefined norms and regulations (Ali, Dada, Isiaka, & Salmon, 2014). However, discipline ideally incorporates the learner's ability to judge what is right or wrong in addition to following to rules and regulations (Gitome, Katola, & Nyabwari, 2013). Discipline is widely recognized as vital for fostering a pleasant school climate conducive to high academic success (Masitsa, 2008). It is an essential prerequisite for effective teaching and learning in schools, as well as a source of concern for teachers (Eshetu, 2014). According to Gitome et al., good discipline leads to improved academic success. To put it another way, discipline is critical for pupils' academic performance (Njoroge & Nyabuto, 2014). Furthermore, it is required for effective school management and achievement of its objectives (Nakpodi, 2010). Indiscipline is a lack of discipline. As a result, indiscipline can be defined as any activity that is considered wrong and is not commonly acknowledged as right in a setting or community (Omote, Thinguri, & Moenga, 2015).
School discipline is the activity of applying school guidelines to student guidelines and the maintenance of school instructions in terms of rule adherence, provision of penalties, and behavior methods. The goal of school discipline is to guide students' behavioral choices. A number of researchers, including Verdugo and Glenn (2002), Chen (2008), and Schoonover (2009), argued that discipline guidelines, such as student suspension, are ineffective at changing children's negative habits (Nichols, 2004).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
According to Ehiane, (2014), a detailed examination of our secondary school students' behavior reveals, among other things, that students remove themselves from class, school, arrive late to class or school, dress indecently, fight indiscriminately, and make off with other students and school property at will. Above all, certain students organize a covert gang that terrorizes their classmates and other people in the school, causing tension and discomfort among the school administration (Emmanuel, Adom, Josephine, & Solomon, 2014). Secondary school students have faced numerous disciplinary actions as a result of this. The topic of this study is stated in the form of a question, thus what are the effective measures for exacting discipline among students?