1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Education is regarded essential not only for individual advancement, but also for the growth of a community and a nation (Radihka, 2018). Education is one of the most important factors that not only instills critical skills, abilities, and knowledge in individuals, but also leads to individual, community, and national growth and progress. An educated individual is capable of not only achieving his or her intended goals and objectives, but also of making a valuable contribution to the community's well-being. Due to the inherent virtues in education, it was thought that Nigeria's progress would be accelerated with the global concept of education for all and the implementation of Universal Basic Education in Nigeria as a follow-up strategy. Despite the importance of education and the efforts made to promote it, students' academic achievement in social studies does not match their involvement. According to Essien (2004), students' academic achievement has deteriorated over time. Learning and academic achievement promote the inculcation of academic information, skills, abilities, and competency among individuals. There are several aspects in secondary schools that play an essential role in improving students' academic success. Students' academic success determines their long-term ambitions and aims. What subjects they will study in colleges and universities, which educational institutions they will enroll in, and what job paths they will pursue, and so on. Class participation, class assignments, home-work assignments, tests, examinations, and involvement in contests or other activities are all factors that influence students' academic achievement. Schools have developed advanced tactics as a result of demand from parents and other individuals on teachers and school administrators to enhance academic achievement. These include encouraging students to take extra classes, implementing effective teaching-learning methods and instructional strategies, and utilizing technology. Rewarding students for good performance serves as a motivator, and when they receive poor grades, they are more likely to work harder to improve their grades (Nyagosia, 2011).
Educators continue to place a premium on the quality of students' work. It's designed to make an impact on a local, regional, national, and global scale. Educators, trainers, and researchers have long been interested in determining what factors contribute to the quality of a learner's performance. These factors, both within and outside of school, have an impact on pupils' academic progress. Student factors, family factors, school factors, and peer factors are examples of these factors (Crosnoe, Johnson & Elder, 2004). The first formal examination of the role of these demographic factors was conducted in the seventeenth century (Mann, 1985). Age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, socioeconomic position (SES), parents' education level, parental occupation, language, income, and religious affiliations are all examples of these characteristics. Typically, these are considered under the heading of demographics (Ballatine, 1993). Demography is a broad term that refers to the study of the nature and consequences of demographic factors in biological and social contexts. Unfortunately, defining and assessing educational quality is not an easy task, and the process is made more difficult by the shifting values of quality features linked with diverse stakeholders' perspectives (Blevins, 2009; Parri, 2006).
Among the many elements that influence students' academic achievement, socioeconomic status is one of the most explored and disputed among educational experts. The most common argument is that a student's socioeconomic situation has an impact on their academic achievement. Most experts believe that pupils' poor socioeconomic level has a detrimental impact on their academic performance since their basic requirements are not met, and as a result, they do not perform better academically (Adams, 1996). Low socioeconomic position leads to environmental deficits, which leads to low student self-esteem (US Department of Education, 2003). The goal of this research is to discover and examine the elements that influence the quality of students' academic achievement.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
According to Agara, (2010), a good educational qualification is a function of social and economic mobility, with excellent secondary school management playing a key role. A excellent secondary education from either public or private schools, accompanied by complete O/Level papers, qualifies a candidate for admission to Nigerian post secondary institutions. This is what most parents and secondary school students hope for. To summarize, it has been noted that Nigeria's secondary education system is failing to meet its set aims and objectives due to high rates of failure in public examinations. According to Omabe (2006), students' poor performance in Senior Secondary Certificate Examinations has sparked popular outrage. Parents, on the other hand, believe that private secondary schools provide a higher level of academic excellence than public secondary schools. This can be supported by the fact that, despite government support and inexpensive tuition costs in public secondary schools, many parents and guardians prefer their children to attend private secondary schools (Igu 2012). In light of the foregoing contexts, the elements of this study's problem concern factors that influence school students' academic performance in Nigeria.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The primary objective of this study is to examine the factors influencing academic performance in schools. Specifically but not limited to, this study seeks:
i. To determine the extent socio-eceonomic factors affect academic performance in schools
ii. To determine the extent teaching methods affect academic performance in schools
iii. To determine the extent teachers’ qualification and attitude towards teaching can affect academic performance in schools
iv. To determine if parents economic status affects academic performance in schools
v. To determine if school environment affects academic performance in schools