Project Body:

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1     BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY The focus has been on the development of people and material resources in order to achieve national development. This is owing to the fact that the expansion of a country's tangible capital stock is heavily reliant on human capital development. Any nation's ability to thrive may be limited if appropriate investment is not made in growing the people and material resources of the education sector. Education is a critical tool for personal social and economic mobility, as well as a tool for societal development at the national level (Okpala, 2016). Howbeit, the availability of people and material resources in  secondary schools  are important factors in determining the school's efficacy and success. Conceptually, Flippo (2013) defined resources as "everything that may provide assistance or support when needed in order for an individual, group of individuals, or organization to attain a goal or purpose." According to Flippo (2013), educational resources are those items that are required to assist or support the achievement of educational goals and objectives. According to Irondi (2019), educational resources include human, financial, and material resources. He goes on to say that human resources are made up of school administrators, teachers, bursars, typists, Clarks, messengers, cleaners, watchman, cook, drivers, librarians, gardeners, and so on. Secondary school human resources include both skilled and unskilled workers. According to Caster (2016) adequate human resource provision in schools aids in the production of excellent student as well as the promotion of good school management. Secondary schools require competent human resources, which is the duty of school proprietors in private establishments and the government in public institutions. The Universal Basic Education Act, which went into effect in September 1999, was supposed to offer free and compulsory education from elementary school through junior secondary school. However, academics such as Okpala (2006) and Maduewesi (2009) have demonstrated that a lack of suitable human and material resources is a key issue that might stymie the successful implementation of UBE. According to Lasa (2018), the success of every human endeavor, including secondary schools, is inextricably linked to the quality of instructors who undertake the role of teaching. He went on to say that the amount to which public education succeeds would be heavily influenced by the quality of the persons involved in the educational process, as well as the efficacy with which they perform individual and collective obligations. He also stated that one of the most important factors in ensuring the success of secondary education is the competence of the staff tasked with effecting desired changes in youngsters. According to Nwana (2013), the appropriateness of teaching personnel and the availability of teaching materials determine the overall efficiency and efficacy of an educational institution. This indicates that appropriate human and material resources are required for secondary schools to be successful and efficient.

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The availability of human and material resources in secondary schools is critical, and the state government has consistently worked to ensure that these educational resources are available to schools. Teaching and learning become more intelligible, meaningful, and simple when human and material resources are made available. According to Ayodeji (2004), it is widely known that human and material resources available in diverse schools have a direct impact on student achievement. These materials, on the other hand, make teaching and learning more effective and relevant. However, there is widespread criticism of the inadequacy of human and material needs/resources available for successful teaching and learning in many Nigerian secondary schools. Surprisingly, government and school officials have clearly been criticized for failing to provide appropriate human and material resources needed in our schools, such as buildings, books, a decent and contemporary library, an Information and communication technology (ICT) Laboratory, and competent instructors. These, on the other hand, enable for successful teaching and learning. For efficient business studies teaching and learning, the selection and use of instructional resources must be methodical. Scholars such as Osarenren-Osaghae and Irabo (2012) identified insufficient human and material resources as one of the key causes of low academic performance among pupils in private secondary schools. As a result, the paucity of material resources, as well as a dearth of competent teachers, has hampered, to some extent, the effectiveness of secondary school teaching and learning. Thus is upon this premise that this study seeks to examine impact of  human and material resources on quality education in Nigeria.

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The main objectives of this study is to examine impact of  human and material resources on quality education in Nigeria. Specifically the study intends to: i.          Determine the extent at which human resources is available in secondary schools. ii.        Ascertain the level at which   material resources is availability  for teaching and learning in secondary schools. iii.      Find out if there is adequacy of available human and material resources using the minimum standard requirement of secondary school teaching and learning. iv.      Investigate the effect of adequate human and material resources on quality education in Nigeria. 1.4     RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

The research is guided by the following tentative statement constructed in line with the research objective.

HO1: The extent at which human and material resources is available in secondary school is low

HO2: There is no significant effect of human and material resources on quality education in Nigeria.


The study which is a survey of educational facilities in private and public secondary  schools will be useful for school administrator, curriculum planners teachers and the government.  The study also will highlight the importance human and material resources towards improving the quality of contemporary education process and the development that has taken place towards accomplishing educational goals. The study is expected to be beneficial to both private and public secondary schools teachers in the sense that they should be aware of the advantages and effectiveness of the educational facilities in teaching and learning process. This study will enhance the existing body of literature by contemplating the areas of the literature that have not yet been examined or considered and incorporating these factors into the current study. The study will thus form the basis for further studies in the field.

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