1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Education is a process, whether formal or informal, that enlightens, builds, and develops both the body and mind, using all available resources wisely to make the educated man most useful to himself, society, and the nation at large (Uka, 2005) In essence, education is viewed as a means of rearing and nurturing the individual in order for him to grow and acquire skill, knowledge, attitude, and valve that effectively initiates him into his culture. As he progresses through life, such a person employs the use of his head, heart, and hand to think, love, work, and develop himself fully for his own good and the good of his society. As a result, he was recognized as a good citizen. This means that education serves an important function in any society, no matter how simple or complex it is, and that function, according to Akinade (2006), is political, economic, social, and cultural. The educational institution is regarded as a school as well as a microcosm of society. As a result, the formal education curriculum is designed to meet the needs of the society in all aspects of education, including the political, economic, social, and cultural needs of the society, which will be incorporated into the society's educational curriculum (Jude, 2007). To bring this closer to home, Christian missionaries introduced western education to Nigeria in 1984. Their motivation for bringing education to Nigeria could thus be described as evangelistic (Akanade, 2006). The colonial government then took over control of education from Christian missionaries in order to ensure the success of the colonial administration in Nigeria. However, following Nigeria's independence in 1960, the colonial perspectives, philosophy, and objectives of Nigerian education shifted dramatically and were then tailored to meet the needs of the Nigerian society. As a result, Nigerian education now aims to achieve the five main national objectives outlined in the second National Development Plan and National Policy on Education (1989), namely the construction of,
- A society that is free and democratic. - A society that is just and egalitarian.
- A strong, united, and self-sufficient nation.
- A land of limitless opportunities for all citizens.
(National Education Policy, 1998)
In order to achieve the above-mentioned national goal, the educational aims and objectives will be designed as follows:
- The instillation of national consciousness and unity.
- The instillation of the appropriate values and attitudes for the individual and Nigerian society's survival.
- Mind training in order to comprehend the world around us
- The acquisition of appropriate mental and physical skills, abilities, and competencies as equipment for the individual to live in and contribute to the development of his society (N.P.C.1998 Page 7-8). In Nigerian society, education is charged with the task of national development in all of its ramifications, including social, economic, political, and cultural development (Johnson, 2008). As a result, the Nigerian society invests more in its educational system. Such input includes teaching and non-teaching staff, money, the student, buildings, books, equipment, and all other necessary materials resources, all of which are properly organized to process the student in order to bring about the desired changes in the student's behavior. To put it another way, society provides input into the educational system in the form of students, teaching staff, non-teaching staff, financial faculties, equipment, and content, all of which are processed to produce output in the form of educated school leavers who are better trained and acquired to be useful to themselves and the society with the right values, attitudes, and skills (Meclelland). To achieve educational goals, certain groups of people in society should be expected to play their roles in educating citizens, which include the government, parents, teachers, schools, and students, respectively (Abraham, 2007). Inspire of shifting the blame for low educational standards solely on teachers, and in order to avoid this blame, teachers must be committed to their work and serve as a model to professionally inclined students. In this regard, some post-modern researchers and psychologists, such as Maslow, have demonstrated that motivation is critical in human life and that it is capable of influencing educational standards in schools. There are dominant factors that explain human behavior in a given situation. These are the characteristics of "Motives." Motives are the powerful incitement to nationalism that lies behind our act and the show of things. As previously stated, any behavior has a motive, and thus motives direct our actions. This is where society, specifically the government and parents, must understand teachers' motivations and direct them to a desirable end. Many psychologists define motivation as a goal-directed "behavior." It is a phenomenon that provides reasons for, or is capable of providing reasons for, the occurrence of a specific behavior (Murray, 2006). As a result, anything that starts or encourages activity, whether external or internal, is motivating. Motivation arises from a desire or an acquired interest and has an effect. Individuals' emotions, thoughts, and behaviors (Blair, 1986) Teachers, in particular, must be motivated by both the government and the parents in the field of education. That is, the government's and parents' roles are to provide those things that will encourage teachers to teach what should be taught. A teacher is a professional who imparts knowledge for a living. A teacher is also someone who has been specially trained to practice the profession of teaching (Olatola 1991). In other words, a teacher is someone who works in the formal school system to help students develop their psychomotor, cognitive, and effective skills (Olawale, 2001) Furthermore, a teacher is someone who has received approved professional training in education at the appropriate level and is capable of imparting knowledge, attitude, and skills to students. Teaching and motivation are inextricably linked in educational institutions because they inspire learners to participate actively in the teaching and learning activities. In any society, the productivity of teaching is a concern for various groups of people in the government, including parents, schools, and students (Grace, 2005). All of these groups, in one way or another, have the ability to motivate teachers to teach. The government could motivate teachers by providing educational facilities, paying teachers' salaries on time, and promoting teachers when they are due. Organizing work shop seminars and in-service training for teachers in order to upgrade their knowledge in order to compete with their counterparts in other countries on a global scale. Along the same lines, parents can motivate teachers by providing their children with both reading and writing materials and assisting their children educationally in order to pave the way for effective teaching and learning processes in the school system (Lang, 2007). They should also finance and provide for the needs of their children. Aside from school, a motivating factor should be the provision of physical facilities, the development of libraries and laboratories, a pleasant and conducive environment, and discipline. Meanwhile, it is not only the government, parents, and schools that can motivate teachers; students can also motivate their teachers by reading their books and completing their assignments as assigned, which piques the teachers' interest and encourages them to perform their duties effectively (Long, 2009). Because of the various motivational strategies used by the government, parents, and students to promote effective teaching and learning in our secondary schools, this study investigates the extent to which motivation promotes teacher productivity. It was discovered that there is an energizing "force" that includes and dictates one's behavior in relation to a given task. It compel teachers to complete tasks in order to meet predetermined standards (Charles, 2008). The primary characteristics are that they are sustained, goal-oriented, and arouse as a result of a need for feet. Motivational factors are those that encourage students to perform better in the classroom. They can be both tangible and intangible, such as a functional benefit, a desirable teaching condition, or leadership styles (Uzu, 2006). According to research, when teachers are given the necessary motivation, they are required to discharge their duties with the utmost discretion. This improves the teacher's ability to improve production quality and create an environment in which everyone can put their book (Esther, 2010). In short, there is a lack of drive and incentive in the teaching profession. In any school where motivation is lacking, the entire teachers productivity will be at its lowest, whereas management expects a very high level of productivity from teachers. In order to maintain high academic performance and achieve the goal of the school as an institution, school managers must strive to get productivity from their teachers by being kind and empathic to teachers (Abimbola, 2005). It is my honest opinion that the government should give (motivation) serious consideration, as there is no gain in saying that people are the pilots on which any school is based, which is why there is so much emphasis on teacher motivation today (LIn, 2009).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Akintola (2003) repeated the uproar over the poor quality of teaching in our secondary schools, stating that the growing pattern in Nigerian education appears to be worse than ever before, due to a lack of proper teacher motivation. Parents' insufficient supply of reading and writing tools for their children is one of the primary causes of poor school performance (Sheun, 2005). In addition, the parent failed to verify the student's work and provide extra assistance in their home work. Another important issue lowering the caliber of education, particularly in our secondary schools, is the government's lack of incentive for teachers in terms of salary, promotion delays, and the government's incapacity to organize workshops and seminars for instructors (Ola, 2004). As a result, in order to improve the quality of education, the government, parents, and students should work together to provide the necessary incentives to motivate teachers to educate (Akintola, 2003).