1.1 Background to the Study
In its widest meaning, education is a process that aims to instill the information, skills, and attitudes that allow people to deal successfully with their surroundings. Its main goal is to encourage and support everyone's complete unique self-realization. It is necessary for everyday life; without it, an individual would be unfit for social life. According to Aremu (2000), education is the process of enhancing people' skills and potentials in order to prepare them to succeed in a certain community or culture. It is often described as a potent instrument for developing intellectual capacities, molding cultural qualities, learning information and skills, and assisting a society in creating its scientific and technical culture. Understanding and dedication to the idea that education is a fundamental tool for social and economic progress of human welfare are required to achieve this aim (Verma, 1997). Education, in this view, mainly serves the purpose of individual growth.
Academic performance refers to a student's degree of academic achievement or success in school." Academic achievement, on the other hand, is at the heart of educational advancement (Aremu & Oluwole, 2001). Academic performance, according to Jansen (2004), is the process of developing a student's skills and potentials in order to prepare that student to succeed in a certain community or culture. From this viewpoint, education mainly serves as a tool for personal growth. It's crucial to remember that academic achievement is often influenced by the environment in which it occurs, and so the skills required may change depending on the situation. In this light, it is possible to infer that the notion, meaning, and criteria of academic achievement may differ depending on the situation. Academic performance in Nigeria, particularly at the secondary school level, has been largely associated with many factors in literature, and Nigeria is no exception. A strong and effective educational system can help boost the development of any country, as academic performance in Nigeria, particularly at the secondary school level, has been largely associated with many factors in literature. These include issues such as the school environment, a lack of learning tools, and the home environment (Adeagbe, 2004; Aremu & Oluwole, 2001). Padilla & Gonzalez (2001) and Aremu & Sokan (2003) both observed high rates of academic failure among students, and several researchers have sought to figure out why. As a result, the issue of student underachievement in school has a long history in educational psychology study. As a result, enhancing student academic success has long been a difficult and frustrating task for educational systems and policymakers. There are two key elements that impact a student's accomplishment among the numerous factors that influence student achievement: the child's home environment and the school environment.
The home environment refers to the child's family background, which comprises all human and material resources in the home that have an impact on the child's life, such as the parent's degree of education, employment, social-economic standing, and socialization facilities. As a result, the family is the most important place for a kid's first socialization and for creating the educational foundation for the child, which the other socialization agents build upon. As a consequence of the significant need for young people to be trained, the government has stepped in to advise and assist the family and schools in this important mission by establishing a national strategy on education that includes national educational goals (Adeagbe, 2004).
The school environment, also known as school plant, refers to the physical amenities accessible in the school, including the school site, buildings, equipment, machinery, furniture, and electricity and water supply infrastructure. It may be compared to the capital in an industrial setting. They are critical in ensuring the system's efficacy and efficiency. A basic visual façade that suggests the purpose for which the buildings are utilized might be a source of pride for students and have a significant impact on their academic achievement (Adeagbe, 2004).
Several studies have been conducted to investigate the elements that influence students' academic performance in a variety of educational institutions across the globe. The majority of these studies concentrate on three intertwined elements: parents (family causal factors), teachers (academic causal factors), and students (personal causal factors). The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of the home and school environment on secondary school students' academic achievement in Delta state.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Parents and the community have expressed worry in recent years about pupils' low academic achievement. Poor academic performance among secondary school students is linked to a variety of issues, including a mixture of elements related to the school environment, such as restricted teaching and learning materials (TLMs), unsuitable textbooks, and instructors who are not adequately qualified. Lateness to school, absenteeism, use of the local language in teaching, failure to finish the curriculum, lack of interest in the children's grasp of the lesson, and not being industrious are all issues that affect teachers (Adeagbe, 2004). Absenteeism and regularity in school, truancy, use of local language in the classroom, lack of interest and delight in the teacher's courses, and minimal assistance with homework at home are all factors that contribute to low academic performance among secondary school students (Adeagbe, 2004). Inability to provide breakfast, textbooks, and basic school necessities, as well as fewer engagement with children's instructors and membership in the Parent Teacher Association, are all factors that contribute to pupils' low academic performance (PTA). hence this study seeks to examine the impact of home and school environment on secondary school students academic achievement in Delta state.