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Several research on the impact of home and parents' socioeconomic position on students' academic achievement have been conducted both inside and outside Nigeria (Uwaifo, 2012). Many variables determine how well a student performs in school and how confident they are in themselves, according to research. However, in Nigeria, like other expanding economy, families finding it increasingly difficult to stay engaged with their children’s education (Olulola, 2007). (Olulola, 2007). Families in megacities like Lagos, where both parents work outside the home, are more likely to experience this. According to Carmen (2007), as mobility has risen, the extended family has become much less extensive. Parents are growing increasingly estranged from their children, making it impossible to keep a close eye on what has to be done to ensure that they succeed in school. Many families are governed by a grandmother, guardian, or other adult rather than a parent (Ajila, 2007). Prior to this period, in what is often considered a traditional Nigerian family context, parent were able to supervise the school work of their children attentively and actively engaged in parents teachers organizations especially to check the advancement of their children. In the home, report cards were regarded as a reliable indicator of academic ability. Parents were able to stay in touch with the school and their children's lives at school, as well as track their achievement or lack thereof. When the kids returned home from school, they had accomplished their homework, assignments, and other schoolwork (Deslander, 2005). Teachers and administrators are discovering that the support they once received in getting students to do their homework is no longer there, due to changes in family life and indeed in societal make-up (Bertrand, 2005). Teachers and administrators are discovering that the support they once received in getting students to do their homework is no longer there, because there are no parents at home to insist that students complete their assignment. For most of the twentieth century, the impact of the family environment on kids' education has been a prominent research issue. Baumrind (1971) is credited with distinguishing three different types of parental engagement and its effects on children. These are i) authoritative, ii) authoritarian, and iii) lenient parental engagement in child discipline. The impact of parental participation on measures of competence, achievement, and social development is discussed by Baumind. Although students are the ones who develop curriculum, write textbooks, and build schools, parents are the ones who are largely responsible for physically, mentally, behaviorally, attitudinally, emotionally, and motivationally preparing students for learning (Stricherz, 2000). To better understand how parents, friends, and communities impact kids' dedication to education, Stenberg and his colleagues conducted surveys, focus groups, and individual interviews with high school students and parents. In the nine ethnically diverse schools and neighborhoods, data was collected from 20,000 (twenty thousand) students and 500 (five hundred) parents during a 10-year period. These researchers discovered that parents' behaviors send a clear and decisive message about their thoughts and feelings about the importance of schooling; they also discovered that parenting style helps or hinders a child's engagement in school; that encouraging a child to do well in school or insisting on homework completion were important forms of promoting engagement; and that encouraging a child to do well in school or insisting on homework completion were important forms of promoting engagement (Clarey, 2002). Communication, influence, and parenting style are all aspects of a wider domain called parental engagement.

The aforementioned studies are not the only ones that speak to the issue of parental involvement; however, they serve only as a means of introducing the broader sphere in this study. In this study, the home environment was examined in relation to its impact on secondary school students' academic achievement.


Although scholars have discovered a link between parental influences on academic achievement of students in primary school, it is important to note that secondary school students differ from typical elementary school students and thus react differently to direct parental involvement in their academics (schawz, 2000). The purpose and goal of this study is to examine the association between home life, namely parenting style and parental socioeconomic level, and secondary school kids' academic achievement.

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