1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The education sub-sector especially tertiary institution in Nigeria have witnessed in recent time incessant closures due to strike actions. Thus, according Chijioke (2013), a strike is an organized work stoppage by a group of workers to compel compliance with demands made by an employer or a group of employers. The Fair Work Act (2009) defines industrial action as work stoppages, work bans, lock-outs, and the performance of work by an employee in a way other than that which is ordinarily conducted. According to the Oxford Dictionary, industrial action is a procedure in which an organization organizes a stoppage of work by employers due to a wage and salary agreement.
Currently, education in Nigeria has not been able to reach the noble goal due to the persistent Academic Staff Union of Lecturers, industrial action that has frequently disrupted academic activity. Many factors may be attributed to the union of lecturers' persistent industrial action, including a dispute between the federal government (FG) and the college of education. The 2010 accord is the Academic Staff Union (COEASU), which the former claims the federal government (FG) has refused to fully execute. These include the non-implementation and payment of unusual learning allowances, the non-implementation of life insurance to families of deceased members, and the non-implementation of the retirement age of 65 in several states' institutions of education.
Other issues include a lack of education nationwide, inadequate funding for teacher education, non-accreditation of National Certificate of Education (NCE) programs, the failure to release a white paper on visitation panel reports, and the imposition of an integrated personnel and payroll information system. The most notable of these issues is a lack of autonomy and dehumanizing working circumstances. In order to find a long-term solution to these issues, the federal government-appointed panel should suggest in their report a 90 percent funding level over the next fifteen years, 1992-2007. The recommendations were included in the agreement between the federal government of Nigeria and the union of tertiary institutions, however the government failed to follow through on the agreement. The economic downturn and the foreign exchange rate did not help the review of the Agreement, which the government bluntly rejects. As a result of this, there have been several industrial actions by the union of tertiary institutions, which have been exacerbated by the way the government reacted to lecturer in tertiary institutions industrial action. Instead of engaging in meaningful dialogue with the lecturer of tertiary institutions, the government said no work, no pay policy and sacked some and even
However, little attention is paid to the impact of continuous strikes on the academic performance of students in Nigerian postsecondary institutions, particularly those carried out by federal and state tertiary institutions in Nigeria in 2013 and 2014. As a result, the purpose of this research is to investigate a series of strike actions and the direct impact they have on student grade point average (GPA). According to Inyene (20120 academic program disruptions serve as demotivating elements for student. It deters children from studying. It is not unexpected, however, that during strike actions, most students are seen engaging in a variety of activities such as sexual immorality, internet scanning, pool betting, useless gossiping, watching movies and reading comic books for enjoyment purposes rather than reading their books. The student expressed remorse that the strike action had produced socio-psychological devastation in their life, resulting in undesired pregnancies and criminal activity hence making it pertinent for this to be studied.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Although tertiary is regarded as the citadel of knowledge the fountain of intellectualism, the most appropriate ground for the incubation of leaders of tomorrow. However, over the last thirsty year in Nigeria the educational system has witness and unprecedented industrial unrest and so many official assaults than other social institution. Statistics from the national tertiary institution commission (2002) reveal that since 1992 the academic staff union of tertiary institution has embarked on industrial action over 23 times to drive home its demands. This unnecessarily have negative effects on the student’s academic performance. This is because the period that should have been used to teach the students is spent at home all in the name of strike. This makes it impossible to cover the syllabus and at the end of the day the student’s come out of school with lesser knowledge than they ought to have acquired, thereby making it very hard for them to compete with their counterparts that finished from private schools. Marshall (2006) opined that effective learning in school occur when the stakeholders adequately perform their roles. The strike actions and this industrial relations deal with the problems of employment, conditions of work, pay, security of employment and other issues such as labor grievances, trade dispute and their resolution within the framework of rules and regulations, mutually by employer and employees. Many have argued that those in position of authorities see tertiary institution a a burden and as institution to be exploited and left desolate, so far some of their wards are studying abroad and private tertiary institution. To arrest the situation academic staff union of universities (ASUU) have gone on industrial action several times with the recent one in 2013 Lingering for more than six months likewise academic staff union of polytechnics (ASUP) which lasted for over two-third of a year and also the colleges of education academic staff union (COEASU) over eight months. The disagreement of lecturer in tertiary institution, industrial action is an agent of social change in an organisation. Education administrations concerned with the effect and influence of industrial action (disagreement) on educational sector in particular to the social economic and political sector in general (Adetiba 2012). There is hardly a full academic session that student and staff crises will not resulting prolongment academic calendar, delayed graduation of students, teaching practice student, delayed in admission list of students and economic waste suffered by students, parents and the country as a whole. This study therefore intends to examine the series of strike action and the direct effect it has on students academic achievement.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The broad objective of this study is to examine the impact of industrial action on the academic achievement of students. Specifically the study seeks to :
1. Determine the extent at which industrial action hampers student academic achievement
2. Investigate whether industrial action have a direct effect on students overall Grade point average (GPA),
3. Ascertain whether staff industrial action leads to delayed graduation of students
4. Investigate staff strike action results to prolongation of academic calendar.
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
HO1: Industrial action does not hampers student academic achievement.
HO2: Staff industrial action does not leads to delayed graduation of students