CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background to the Study The efficacy of teachers has been hypothesized to be crucial to student achievement (Darling Hammond, 2010), Effective teachers, according to Darling Hammond, have enhanced topic knowledge, are capable of developing and delivering teaching, can better manage and assess classrooms, and can better promote student learning. Other researchers, such as Clotfelter, Ladd, and Vigdor (2007), have proposed that good teachers adopt novel teaching tactics, pay greater attention to student learning, and use evaluation to alter their practices. These scholars argue that in order for teachers to be effective in improving students' performance, they must use modern teaching and learning methods, such as the competent base curriculum that is now being implemented in primary schools, which emphasizes the development of certain specific key competences related to the students' learning environment, and to ensure that teaching in the classroom broadens and deepens the pupil's mental horizon. Several academics have attempted to define the attributes of an excellent teacher. Some have cited dedication and desire for progress (Slavin et al.1995), zero tolerance for failure (Anderson and Pellicer, 1998), while yet others identify excellent teachers as individuals who are confident in their abilities. Effective tutors, according to Ashton and Webb (1986), are those who have a sense of self-efficacy. Overall, teacher effectiveness may be defined as the attributes that can assist students in performing well and those that endeavor to guarantee the school's goals are met. The ambition of any educational institution is to achieve school goals such as maximum production, greatest student retention, performance, and completion. Others have defined teacher effectiveness in terms of how teachers see it in elementary school. Coleman et al. (1966) referred to particular measurements of student, teacher, and classroom variables in their description. This description, on the other hand, is based on the functional perspective of education production, where effectiveness is judged by the pass rate of the students. The debate on poor academic achievement among Nigerian pupils has piqued the interest of many. The situation is so severe that it has resulted in a generally acknowledged deterioration in the caliber of education in Delta State and Nigeria as a whole. The quality of education is determined by the instructors' execution of their obligations. Over time, students' academic achievement in both internal and external assessments was utilized to judge instructor and instructional excellence (Ajao 2001). Teachers have been demonstrated to have a significant impact on students' academic accomplishment, and they also play a vital part in educational attainment since the teacher is ultimately accountable for turning policy into action and principles based on practice during interactions with students (Afe 2001). Teachers are responsible for both teaching and learning, thus it is no surprise that a successful teacher has been defined as one who achieves the intended results while doing his or her duties as a teacher (Uchefuna 2001). Despite governments' large investments in public education, its output in terms of student quality has been found to be unequal to government expenditure. Following the reported decrease in academic success, attitude, and values of secondary school students in public secondary schools, one questions if the high failure rates and poor student quality are not a reflection of the instructional quality in the schools. In a nutshell , teachers' ineffectiveness in classroom interactions with children may be the reason for observed pupil's poor academic performance and the Nigeria's nationally criticized deteriorating educational standard. 1.2 Statement of the Problem Scholars in recent time reiterate the need for teachers effectiveness at all times, since an incompetent teacher is ineffective to the teaching profession. Such inefficiency may be caused not only by individual teacher characteristics such as intellectual capacity, inadequate training, and resistance to modern pedagogical methods but also by negative attitude toward the teaching profession and a lack of dedication to professional duties (Hakielimu, 2008). Furthermore, teacher ineffectiveness may be caused by classroom environment factors such as a lack of appropriate teaching and learning tools, as well as the number of students in one classroom as well student characteristics such as family background and students' proclivity to learn. Therefore it becomes necessary to analyze the commonly held belief in Nigeria that all that is required to be a good teacher is a general qualification obtained from a university or college of education. This is further supported by Anyanwu (2021) who opined that being a teacher is much more than certification but requires diligence and commitment towards impacting knowledge on a learner. Perhaps this is why untrained and ineffective teachers continue to work in Nigerian schools hence deepening the low standard of education and affecting pupil’s performance. Thus it is against this backdrop that this study seeks to examine the impact of teachers effectiveness on pupil’s performance. 1.3 Objectives of the Study The main objectives of this study is to examine teachers effectiveness on pupils performance in primary school. Specifically the study intends to: 1. Examine the level of teacher’s effectiveness among primary school teachers. 2. Determine the factors that influence teachers effectiveness in primary schools. 3. Investigate whether teachers effectiveness hinders pupils academic performance 4. Establish ways on how teachers effectiveness can be improved in Primary schools 1.4 Research Questions
The following reseacrh question was constructed in line with objective to guide the study.
1. What is the level of teacher’s effectiveness among primary school teachers? 2. What are the factors that influence teachers effectiveness in primary schools? 3. Does teachers effectiveness hinders pupils academic performance? 4. What are the ways on how teachers effectiveness can be improved in Primary schools?