1.1 Background of the study
Counselors and supervisors who deal with traumatized people must be aware of both the emotional and behavioral expressions of trauma as well as the physical effects of psychological trauma. Integrating the intricate literature into practical practice, on the other hand, is tough. Many writers go into further depth about different elements of the following content, but the goal of this article is to present information that all counselors dealing with traumatized clients can understand. The emotional trauma response of a person is complicated and difficult to anticipate. Individual responses to trauma are influenced by a person's age, previous trauma exposure, social support, culture, family psychiatric history, and overall emotional functioning (Perry , 2001). Furthermore, the emotional and physical proximity to actual danger, the degree of perceived personal control, the length of exposure to trauma, the reaction of others to the trauma, and the source of the trauma (e.g., natural disaster, abuse from a parent, abuse from a stranger, random personal violence, combat, terrorist act) all have an impact on an individual's response to trauma (Perry , 2001). Some individuals show resilience by reacting to adversity in a creative and flexible way. Others, on the other hand, see trauma as a negative, primary defining event in their life, signaling the onset of long-term emotional discomfort, maladaptive behavior, and/or relationship dysfunction. Most people suffer transient preoccupation and some involuntary intrusive recollections after being exposed to a stressful incident. According to Harris (2007), the repetitive replaying of painful memories actually modifies the emotional reaction to the trauma, resulting in a steady rise in traumatic content tolerance. While most individuals recover over time by integrating and accepting the horrific event via repetition, some acquire the hyperarousal and avoidance habits of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The terrible experience does not get recognized as part of their history in these people. Instead, each repetition of the memory exacerbates sensitivity and anguish (Harris, 2007).
Every day, students from all around the country bring their own trauma experiences to class. Trauma "results from an event, series of events, or set of circumstances that is experienced by an individual as physically or emotionally harmful or threatening and has lasting adverse effects on the individual's functioning and physical, social, emotional, or spiritual well-being," according to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA, 2014). Traumatic events, also known as unpleasant experiences, are common among children and adolescents of all ages and may involve things like poverty, abuse and neglect, and exposure to community violence (Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative, 2013).
The cognitive and psychological impacts of trauma exposure in the classroom are accompanied by academic and social issues. Students with traumatic stress histories performed worse on standardized exams and were three times more likely to be placed in an Individualized Education Program, according to Goodman, Miller, and West-Olatunji (2011). (IEP). Students with histories of abuse have worse academic attainment, according to Shonk and Cicchetti (2001). Children with trauma histories exhibit a broad variety of externalizing and internalizing behaviors, including irritability, violence, withdrawal, problems with authority, and hyper arousal, in addition to academic underachievement (National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2008). These habits may start as early as preschool and can last all the way until adulthood (Graham-Bermann, Castor, Miller, & Howell, 2012).
1.2 Statement of the problem
The school promotes itself as a vital venue for mental health intervention for kids demonstrating the cognitive, psychological, academic, or social repercussions of exposure to traumatic experiences (Weist, Evans, & Lever, 2003). Despite the fact that school social workers, counselors, and psychologists are often seen as the major providers of mental health services, evidence reveals that classroom teachers are increasingly accountable for implementing mental health treatments. Franklin and colleagues (Franklin, Kim, Ryan, Kelly, & 4 Montgomery, 2012) found that teachers were actively engaged in the delivery of approximately 41% of mental health interventions in a comprehensive evaluation of school mental health intervention studies. Furthermore, teachers were the only providers of around 18 percent of the treatments included in the systematic review (e.g., drug and alcohol use prevention, anger management, depression, and suicidal behaviors interventions) (Franklin et al., 2012). The findings of the Reinke et al. (2011) study relate to teachers' general opinions of counselling in managing traumatized children in the classroom; nevertheless, there is little research that particularly addresses teachers' experiences helping traumatized students. Only a few research addressing teachers' perceptions of counseling in handling trauma in the classroom have been found in the prior literature. As a result, there is a need to investigate the perception of teachers on the impact of counselling in managing traumatized students in secondary schools.
1.3 Objective of the study
The primary objective of the study is as follows
1) To examine teachers perception on how counselling helps in the management of traumatized students.
2) To examine teachers perception on the effect of trauma on academic performance of secondary school student.
3) To find out the perception of teachers on the challenges of managing traumatized secondary school student.
4) To examine teachers perception on the strategies counsellor can use in managing traumatized students.