Project Body:


1.0              INTRODUCTION

Guidance and counseling has gone through various stages of development, corresponding with the prevailing philosophical view of man and his place in the world. People have found it necessary to work together for the common protection and comfort since from time beginning, and therefore guidance and counseling plays an important role in the development of a total person, in terms of working to their benefit to ask and give advice when the need arises.

Guidance and counseling have no specific definitions professionals in the field have attempted to define these two terms in the own different ways. Miller (1980) in his own perspective definition says: Guidance and counseling as the process of helping individuals achieve the self understanding and self-direction which is necessary to make the maximum adjustment to school, home and community. Mohammed (1987) defined guidance as the development of capacities for making wise decisions, overcoming personal problems, understanding the world around one and achieving satisfactory adjustment in school life.

Counseling is the heart of the entire guidance work. The care of helping process is the relationship expressed through interaction between the counselor and the counselee.

It is characterized by an immediate interaction in which each person is sensitive to the other.

Stone (1980) defined “counseling as a special interaction between the client and the counselor with the aim of helping the client understand himself, to take decision regarding his problem”. Thus a close examination of the concept of guidance and counseling tends to show a close relationship between them and the objections of primary education in Nigeria as spelt out by the National policy on Education. Historical foundation of education (1978). state that the demands for primary school guidance and counseling began as far back as (1960). The concept of guidance and counseling in Nigerian Schools is not new. Earlier, the head teachers and teachers used to perform these functions of guidance and counseling as part of their personal roles with the rise of technology in industrialized societies and with increasing diversification in academics disciplines. Children especially those under the age of fourteen year find it very difficult to make their minds about what sort of carrier and it also revive a variety of conflicting issues in the child’s of pupils’ traditional periods. One of the main objective of educational psychology is that of prediction of success in school professions and personal relationship with others. To make such predictions worthwhile. Precise knowledge of at least three factors are necessary, these factors are:

i.                    Knowledge of aspect of international situation between the child and his environment.

ii.                  Knowledge about the child’s abilities, aptitudes, interest attitudes at home and social background.

iii.                Knowledge of the aspect of qualities needed for optional performance in the academic professions.

Early treatment of problems in the primary school stage might facilitate the development of the decision making, skills, and personal development of the child. Programmes of highly specialized activities should be implemented in the primary schools in order to help the pupils make wise, intelligent choices and decisions, with this it will help individuals to understand his potentials, weakness aptitudes, interest etc.

1.1              Background of the study

Kaduna North Local Government is one of the local governments that are existing in Kaduna State. It was formally part of defund North Nigeria. It was developed by the then British as the Administrative Capital of the then Northern Nigeria.

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