1.1 Background of the study
In the contemporary world, culture and consumerism have had an unparalleled interaction (HemaPatil and Bblakkapa, 2012). They go on to say that, given this relationship and the fact that the global economy is becoming increasingly cross-cultural, marketers will need to understand how socio-cultural disparities influence consumer brand choice, especially since culture is a powerful force in regulating human perception in the brands they consume. In Koutroulou and Tsourgiannis (2011), Booth and Shepherd found that cultural and economic elements, as well as a consumer's personality, attitudes, values, religion, and emotions, influence their decision-making process when choosing a brand. Consumer perception of a brand is influenced and motivated by factors such as culture, personality, lifestyle, income, attitudes, motivators, feelings, knowledge, ethnicity, family, values, available resources, opinions, experiences, peer groups, and other groups, according to Speiers, Gundala, and Singh (2014). In a similar vein, Sethi and Chawla (2014) said that specific consumer qualities, psychological elements, as well as social and cultural aspects, all impact the purchasing process of a brand's goods. Because they are important drivers in the development of attitudes, beliefs, and values, culture, subculture, and social class are recognized to have substantial impacts on people's brand preferences (Blythe, 2008). Similarly, according to Kotler and Armstrong (2013), individuals in a given culture share certain ideas and values that tend to resist change. This explains why it's difficult to modify a brand's patronage impression once it's formed. Many civilizations and religions consider some brands and goods to be holy ( e.g, pork meat). According to Solomon (2011), sacred consumption happens when particular things and experiences are "put aside" from everyday activity and treated with reverence before being eaten. According to Anyanwu (1993), the Muslim population does not consume pig meat for religious reasons, and any corporation seeking to alter this mentality would fail. Companies desiring to prosper in this community, on the other hand, should keep this in mind and focus on the creation and sale of other things that will appeal to them. Income, age, and stage in the consumer's life-cycle are also likely to have an influence on the marketing and consumption of a brand's goods. People vary their tastes in food, clothing, furniture, and leisure during their lives, according to Kotler and Armstrong (2013), who also stated that taste in food, clothes, furniture, and recreation is generally age-related. As a result, as individuals become older, their desire for and consumption of a given product decreases.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Culture, subculture, attitude, religion, and socioeconomic class are all proven to have a significant impact on customer purchasing behavior and perceptions of a brand ( Solomon,2011). University students have been shown to consume more of a variety of things, including food, apparel, perfume, shoes, purses, and a variety of other items. Kotler (2001) supports this viewpoint by claiming that culture is the most important driver of a person's perception and behavior toward a brand or product. He also claims that sociocultural differences in brand choice have the greatest and most profound impact on students' perceptions of product patronage behavior. Hence the purpose of this study therefore is to look into the impact of socio- cultural disparities on brand perception of Universities student using Kwara State University and University of Ilorin as case study.
1.3 Objective of the study
The primary objective of this study is as follows
1. To evaluate the impact of cultural difference in the choice of brand patronage by students.
2. To examine the perception of student on influence of social class in the choice of brand patronage.
3. To find out the perception of students on the influence of religion in brand patronage.
4. To examine the perception of students on the influence of attitude in the patronage of a brand.